By Shabika, Discover Andaman Holidays
Andaman is a beautiful archipelago consisting of 572 islands of which 37 are inhabitant.
As of our knowledge, British’s are the first humans who stepped on these island, but it’s wrong, more than 60,000 years ago some of the negrito tribes of Neolithic culture separated from the African continent and they are the actual people of Andaman , nowadays we call them tribes of Andaman.
It’s a basic question to all of us . How these tribes reached these islands ? Which is far away from the mainland , and that too they don’t look like us. Nicobari and Shompen tribe had a similar physique they looks like east asians fair in colour, straight hairs, flat nose (Chinese, Japanese) and the rest of the tribes looks like Africans, because of their dark colour and their physique .
60,000 years ago during the formation of continents ,with the gradual movements of tectonic plates these island were separated from the gondwana land which consist of African , Asian, Australian continent. This is said that these islands are some isolated part of madagascar which was separated from africa because of its rich wild life and forest and the tribes who are of nigreto family, like wise the Nicobarise and Shompen tribes are of mongoloid descends.
Because of the movements of tectonic plates these islands lost their actual connections from their mainland with few tribes on different islands.
Generally people from Indian subcontinent, belief that Andaman is a place where only Jarawa’s and other tribes live, and these tribes hurts the other residents of island , so they get afraid of visiting the islands. By the help of govt. Nowadays tribes like Nicobarese are getting good education, and performing jobs in different fields.
Jarwas are habitant in the parts of middle Andaman and they are totally depend upon hunting and gathering, they stay far away from the modern life style, they stay in small huts built by them in the dense forest and use to collect roots, use to hunt fishes, animals and wild fruits to eat. Government build some small house in the dense forest for these tribes so that they can stay in them during the rainy season also govt. Provide them food grains like rice.
Onges are very few in number approximately 100 and stay in little Andaman and in some parts of rutland, only 3 – 4 are educated, they try to avoid the local islander and feel happy to stay away from the city. They are friendly by nature.
Great Andamanese are also one of the tribe of Andaman and like Jarawas they also live in the dense forest in other islands rather then the densly populated areas, they are hunter and gathrer and totally depend upon the natural products. It’s very rare to have a glimpse of these tribles. They avoid the outsiders, and even sometime hostile to the outsiders.
Sentinel tribal are the most hostile tribal in the world. They live in the north sentinal island, and avoid the contact with any of the outsiders, they are more hostile then any other tribes. They use to kill the outsiders who try to enter into their island. Even they use to throw arrows to the helicopter of navy who try to help them. No one know much about them, even they do not show mercy to the fishermen’s who accidently enter to their area. They resist any of the outsider.
The Anthropological Survey of India came up with the first authentic demographic database of the Shompen tribe of the great Nicobar Island. Earlier, it was believed that Shompen are a homogenous group, but now ANSI reveals that the Shompen are in four heterogeneous groups that is northeast, western, southern and central groups and each having a different languages. Their current population estimated between 200 to 300. They are primarily hunters and gatherers and also practice little bit of horticulture and pig rearing. They hunt wild pigs, monkeys, monito lizard and pythons. They have developed a symbiotic relationship with the great Nicobarese. There are less women in comparison to men, and many of the men have no partners. Marriage by capturing women from different groups and subgroups is one of the customs of the Shompen society. This must be a reason of mutual hostility among groups.
Nicobarese are the first tribe who adopted the modern education, and adapted the normal life. Most of the Nicobarese tribes lives in Nicobar island and car Nicobar and some part of little Andaman .these tribal areas are strictly restricted other then the govt. Officials. If their culture and food habitant changed then they will get dieses very frequently likewise govt. Trying to develop all other 5 tribes .they are of friendly nature.